This is harder than it might sound. He was 22 years old at the time and owned 25 per cent of the company. This was the case when we removed 32 Pages and accounts last month. In his seminal paper on the topic, Jason Healey described a spectrum to measure the degree of state responsibility for cyber attacks. As a result, simple techniques like blaming the owner of an IP address that was used to register a malicious account usually aren’t sufficient to accurately determine who’s responsible. That’s why we’ve worked closely with our fellow tech companies, both bilaterally and as a collective, to deal with the threats we have all seen during and beyond elections. The reader who sent it to me is a woman who seems to be incredibly nice! When we identify a campaign, our aim is to learn as much as we can about: the extent of the bad actors’ presence on our services; their actions; and what we can do to deter them. Like many other big technology companies Facebook offers cash rewards to security researchers who point out flaws in the site’s code. For example, in cases of targeted malware and hacking attempts that we know are being done by a sophisticated bad actor, like a nation state, we may put a notice at the top of people’s News Feed to alert them and make sure their account is safe. Our technical forensics are insufficient to provide high confidence attribution at this time. But what we can do is closely consider the many moving pieces, weigh the benefits and risks of various scenarios, and make a decision that we think will be best for people on our services and society at large. Elonis might not be off the hook, however. Moderators remove content ‘upon report only’, meaning graphic content could be seen by millions before it is flagged. Zuckerberg reportedly turned it down by saying “I don't know what I could do with the money. Facebook currently supports more than 70 different languages – including English (Pirate) and English (Upside Down). Elonis wrote in one of many posts. With backgrounds in cybersecurity, digital forensics, national security, foreign policy and law enforcement, the experts on our security team investigate suspicious behavior on our services. After we named the IRA, we expected the organization to evolve. In September, we launched our first elections war room at our Menlo Park headquarters — a place where the right subject-matter experts from across the company gathered to address potential problems in real time and respond quickly. But we don’t believe this evidence is strong enough to provide public attribution to the IRA. His lawyers said it was a form of therapy as well as art. They were originally published alongside other announcements. You can browse Facebook upside down. By clicking or navigating the site, you agree to allow our collection of information on and off Facebook through cookies. Facebook’s logo is blue because Mark Zuckerberg is red-green colour blind. As we continue to build our capability to identify and stop information operations, these partnerships will only grow more valuable. “Blue is the richest color for me. ", The lengthy diatribe copied nearly word-for-word a satirical sketch by The Whitest Kids U' Know comedy troupe, concluding with Elonis' own summation: "Art is about pushing limits. This sometimes means that we speed up taking something down because an event is approaching. Tips from government and law enforcement partners can therefore help our security teams attribute suspicious behavior to certain groups, make connections between actors, or proactively monitor for activity targeting people on Facebook. These questions have been debated by security experts for years. The process of attributing observed activity to particular threat actors has been much debated by academics and within the intelligence community. This is why today, I want to share more about how we work with each of these groups — and some of the inevitable challenges that come along with this collaboration. A YouGov poll claimed that three-quarter of UK Facebook users' photos showed someone drinking or inebriated. Elonis' case offered a perfect test. But today we’re shutting down 32 Pages and accounts engaged in coordinated inauthentic behavior without saying that a specific group or country is responsible. More than a third of divorce filings in 2011 referenced Facebook, said a survey from UK-based legal firm Divorce Online. Start your Independent Premium subscription today. Elonis' attorneys said he never intended to carry out his violent threats. Some use language we would not usually publish, but to understand Facebook’s content policies, we have decided to include it. They assisted in our takedown of 32 Pages and accounts from Facebook and Instagram for coordinated inauthentic behavior in July of this year as well as our our recent takedown of a financially motivated “like” farm in Brazil. When we reach a point where our analysis is turning up little new information, we’ll take down a campaign, knowing that more time is unlikely to bring us more answers. And sharing information with law enforcement agencies introduces additional complexities and challenges. The TTPs of the IRA have been widely discussed and disseminated, including by Facebook, and it’s possible that a separate actor could be copying their techniques. It can be challenging to coordinate the operations and timing of these investigations, though. Academics have written about a variety of methods for attributing activity to cyber actors, but for our purposes we simplify these methods into an attribution model with four general categories.