Like 1st century Jews, early Christians rejected the use of musical instruments in religious ceremonies and instead relied on chants and plainsong leading to the use of the term a cappella (in the chapel) for these chants. 5. pp. 2. Annunciation to the shepherds in the fields [139], According to Christian fundamentalism, the two accounts are historically accurate and do not contradict each other,[140] with similarities such as the birthplace of Bethlehem and the virgin birth. "Does Nativity regard the nature rather than the Person?" [103], The earliest source stating December 25 as the date of birth of Jesus was Hippolytus of Rome (170–236), written very early in the 3rd century, based on the assumption that the conception of Jesus took place at the Spring equinox which he placed on March 25, and then added nine months. Some Eastern Orthodox Christians (e.g. [82] To deal with this issue, Aquinas distinguishes between the person born and the nature in which the birth takes place. – Penguin, 1993. First the event portrays the mystery of incarnation as a foundation for the Christian faith, and the combined nature of Christ as divine and human. 29  And when she saw him, she was troubled at his saying, and cast in her mind what manner of salutation this should be. [101] The celebration of the feast of the Magi on January 6 may relate to a pre-Christian celebration for the blessing of the Nile in Egypt on January 5, but this is not historically certain. Today, the word nativity is most often used in reference to the birth of Jesus Christ. [72][73] According to Ulrich Luz, the Emmanuel motif brackets the entire Gospel of Matthew between 1:23 and 28:20, appearing explicitly and implicitly in several other passages. 31  And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name Jesus. "The Sources of the Old Testament Quotation in Matthew 2:23". [54], In patristic theology, Paul's contrasting of Jesus as the new man versus Adam provided a framework for discussing the uniqueness of the birth of Jesus and the ensuing events of his life. Beginning with 1:23, Matthew shows a clear interest in identifying Jesus as "God with us" and in later developing the Emmanuel characterization of Jesus at key points throughout the rest of his Gospel. [28] [110] The use of the term Kyrios, and hence the Lordship of Jesus, pre-dated the Pauline epistles, but Saint Paul expanded and elaborated on that topic. [125], The three canticles Benedictus, Nunc Dimittis and the Magnificat, if not originating with Luke himself, may have their roots in the earliest Christian liturgical services in Jerusalem, but their exact origins remain unknown. 192–242. [53][55][56] The concept of Jesus as the "new man" repeats in the cycle of birth and rebirth of Jesus from his Nativity to his Resurrection: following his birth, through his morality and obedience to the Father, Jesus began a new harmony in the relationship between God the Father and man. Adoration of the Magi in Bethlehem "Should the Blessed Virgin be called Christ's Mother?" [158], Many scholars do not see the Luke and Matthew nativity stories as historically factual. Joseph, Mary and Jesus return home to Nazareth, 1. [133], In the Eastern Church icons of Nativity often correspond to specific hymns to Mary, e.g. Joseph, Mary and Jesus' Flight into Egypt to the Kontakion: "The Virgin today bringeth forth the Transubstantial, and the eart offereth a cave to the Unapproachable. With only a stable for shelter, Mary gives birth to Jesus with Joseph at her side. [33][37], According to Ulrich Luz, the beginning of the narrative of Matthew is similar to earlier biblical stories, e.g., the Annunciation of Jesus' birth (Matthew 1:18–25) is reminiscent of the biblical accounts of the births of Ishmael (Genesis 16:11, Genesis 17), Isaac (Genesis 21:1), and Samson (Judges 13:3, Judges 13:5), and it recalls the Haggadic traditions of the birth of Moses. Shortly after Jesus' birth, he was visited by shepherds who had been told of the event by an angel. This was the first census that took place while Quirinius was governor of Syria." The nativity of Jesus, nativity of Christ, birth of Christ or birth of Jesus is described in the Biblical gospels of Luke and Matthew. Perhaps as much as two years later, a group of wise men, or kings from the east, also came to pay homage. 2. Pope Sixtus III then instituted the practice of Midnight Mass just before that feast. And the angel departed from her. Census of Quirinius (6–7 CE) yet Matthew is not simply retelling the Moses story. [29] C. T. Ruddick, Jr. writes that Luke's birth narratives of Jesus and John were modeled on passages from the Book of Genesis (chapter 27–43). "Are there two filiations in Christ? In his sermons Gerson emphasized the loving nature of Jesus at his Nativity, as well as his cosmic plan for the salvation of mankind. Ulrich Luz, the Theology of the Gospel of Matthew, Cambridge University Press. In the 2nd century, the Resurrection of Jesus became a separate feast as Easter and in the same century Epiphany began to be celebrated in the Churches of the East on January 6. [58], In the Middle Ages the birth of Jesus as the second Adam came to be seen in the context of Saint Augustine's Felix culpa (i.e. [115] Over time, based on the influence of Anselm of Canterbury, Bernard of Clairvaux and others, the Kyrios image of Jesus began to be supplemented with a more "tender image of Jesus", and the Franciscan approach to popular piety was instrumental in establishing this image. [86][87][88][89][90] The liturgical season of Advent precedes, and is used to prepare for the celebration of Christmas. [83], During the Reformation, John Calvin argued that Jesus was not sanctified to be "God manifested as Incarnate" (Deus manifestatus in carne) only due to his Virgin Birth, but through the action of the Holy Spirit at the instant of his birth. [23], Like the Christian Gospels, Islam places the virgin birth of Jesus in Bethlehem.[24][25][26]. The one on December 25, 451, demonstrates his concern to increase the importance of the feast of nativity and along with it emphasize the two natures of Christ in defense of the Christological doctrine of hypostatic union. Translated from the ancient Greek of the New Testament to modern English, this name becomes "Jesus." ", etc. [81] Leo often used his nativity sermons as an occasion to attack opposing viewpoints, without naming the opposition. [30] Regardless, Luke's nativity depicts Jesus as a savior for all people, tracing a genealogy all the way back to Adam, demonstrating his common humanity, and likewise for the lowly circumstances of his birth. Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. [131], Before the manger scene tradition developed, there were paintings depicting the subject. The word nativity comes from the Latin term nativus, which means "born." Of the four canonical gospels, only two offer narratives regarding the birth of Jesus: Matthew (Matthew 1:18-25, plus a genealogy of Joseph at Matthew 1:1-17) and Luke (Luke 2:1-7, plus a genealogy of Joseph at Luke 3:21-38). The term "nativity scene" is commonly used for depictions of the birth (or nativity) of Jesus Christ in paintings, sculptures, and movies. This is a summary of the Biblical account of the birth of Jesus.