Saturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons having only single covalent bonds between their carbons. Finally, alkanes are almost completely insoluble in water. For alkanes, this can be seen from the graph above (i.e., the blue line). Also, Read in Detail: Physical & Chemical Properties of Alkanes. Virtually all organic compounds contain carbon–carbon, and carbon–hydrogen bonds, and so show some of the features of alkanes in their spectra. This is called incomplete combustion. However, in general and perhaps surprisingly, when branching is not extensive enough to make highly disfavorable 1,2- and 1,3-alkyl–alkyl steric interactions (worth ~3.1 kcal/mol and ~3.7 kcal/mol in the case of the eclipsing conformations of butane and pentane, respectively) unavoidable, the branched alkanes are actually more thermodynamically stable than their linear (or less branched) isomers. [33], In plants, the solid long-chain alkanes are found in the plant cuticle and epicuticular wax of many species, but are only rarely major constituents. [24] Isomerization and reformation are processes in which straight-chain alkanes are heated in the presence of a platinum catalyst. It is generally observed that even-numbered alkanes have a higher trend in melting point in comparison to odd-numbered alkanes as the even-numbered alkanes pack well in the solid phase, forming a well-organized structure which is difficult to break. 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