The content of ammonia-nitrogen and lactic acid isomers was determined by enzymatic analysis according to the F-Kit UV method (Boehringer GmbH). Therefore, it is necessary to use some bacterial inoculants to control microbes in silage fermentation. They live in the soil in either aerobic or anaerobic environments. Most isolates were distributed on forage crops at low frequency. Laboratory silage preparation and chemical analysis. Strains LA 3 and LA 35 grew under low-pH (3.5) and high-temperature (50°C) conditions. Laboratory silage preparation and chemical analysis.Alfalfa and Italian ryegrass were harvested at the flowering stage. Peptococcus: [ pep″to-kok´us ] a genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria; they are part of the flora of the mouth, upper respiratory tract, and large intestine, and also cause soft tissue infection and bacteremias. 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequence analyses of lactobacilli and related taxa. Aerobic bacteria were counted on nutrient agar (Difco), and mold and yeasts were counted on potato dextrose agar (Nissui-seiyaku). Strain LS 5 had a G+C content of 38.6 mol%. Strain LS 5 was 88.8 or 97.5% homologous with the type strains of P. pentosaceus. Gram-positive cocci staphylococci growth both-aerobic-and-anaerobic catalase-negative pyrase-negative nonmotile vancomycin-resistant References Group B included eight strains that did not produce acid from lactose and produced acid from maltose. The numbers indicate bootstrap values for the branch points. Fermentation quality of silage ensiled at 25 or 48°C for 60 daysa. Strains LA 3, LA 35, and LS 5 are representative isolates from groups A, B, and C, which were originally recovered from forage crops. Strain LS 5 did not grow below pH 4.0 or above 45°C. Effect of Pediococcus acidilactici on the intestinal microbial community Viable cell counts from the digesta of red tilapia at the end of the probiotic trial are displayed in Table 5. , AB018214 ), Aerococcus urinaeequi IFO 12173 (D87677 The type species is. When stored at 48°C, silages inoculated with LA 3 and LA 35 were also well preserved and had significantly (P < 0.05) higher lactic acid contents and significantly (P < 0.05) lower pH values and butyric acid, propionic acid, and ammonia-nitrogen contents than the control. Pediococci are often found living in association with plant material, dairy products, and foods produced by LAB (5, 12, 13, 17, 18), and several papers have reported pediococci as the dominant microbial population on forage crops and silage. Physiological and biochemical properties. Strain SL 1 was a homofermentative Lactobacillus that formed lactic acid as anl-(+) isomer and grew at pH 3.5 but did not grow above 45°C. casei SL 1. ),Pediococcus dextrinicus JCM 5887 (D87679 Pediococcus species are infrequent causes of diseases and classified as aerobic, catalase-negative, vancomycin-resistant, Gram-positive cocci . Generally, moist dairy farm silage is based on a natural lactic acid fermentation. When stored at 25°C, the alfalfa and Italian ryegrass silages that were treated with LA 3, LA 35, LS 5, and SL 1 were well preserved; the pH values, butyric acid, propionic acid, and ammonia-nitrogen contents, gas production, and DM loss were significantly (P < 0.05) lower and the lactic acid contents were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of the control. The DNA-DNA relatedness was determined by the method of Ezaki et al. The genetic interrelationships of members of the LAB have been studied extensively in 16S rRNA sequence and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, and new genera and species have been added (3, 6-8). The agar plates were incubated at 30°C for 2 to 4 days. ),Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4365 (M58802 For tests of carbohydrate fermentation, the strains were cultivated on liver broth (20) at 30°C for 24 h and the broth was then diluted 10-fold with sterile saline solution. LAB were detected by the presence of a yellowish colony and a clear zone due to dissolving CaCO3. The factors involved in assessing fermentation quality include the chemical composition of the silage material and the physiological properties of epiphytic bacteria. DNA base compositions and levels of DNA-DNA homology forPediococcus species. These results reflect the observation that strains LA 3 and LA 35 could grow at 50°C but strains LS 5 and SL 1 did not grow at that temperature and may die above 45°C. Preparation of transforming deoxyribonucleic acid by phenol treatment. The type species is niger. All of the isolates were easily distinguished from the type strains of Pediococcus species. Nucleotide substitution rates (Knuc values) were calculated (15), and the phylogenetic tree was constructed by the neighbor-joining method (25). All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. A genus of nonmotile, anaerobic, chemoorganotrophic bacteria (family Peptococcaceae) containing gram-positive, spheric cells that occur singly, in pairs, tetrads, or irregular masses, and rarely in short chains. They are frequently found in association with pathologic conditions. Involvement of lactic acid bacteria in the fermentation of Tef (, Opinion 68. ), Lactobacillus casei JCM 1177 (D16553 ),Lactobacillus bifermentans DSM 20003 (M58809 Compared with the control, silages inoculated with LA 3 and LA 35 had significantly (P < 0.05) reduced DM loss and gas production, but silages inoculated with LS 5 and SL 1 resulted in similar levels of these contents in alfalfa and Italian ryegrass silages. AB018213 The changes in temperature during silage fermentation are well known. The dry-matter (DM) content of the fresh forage was determined by oven drying at 70°C for 48 h, whereas that of the silages was determined by the removal of water by toluene distillation with ethanol correction (9). Effect of NaCl-tolerant lactic acid bacteria and NaCl on the fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of silage. Determination of dry matter in silage by distillation with toluene. Strains LA 3, LA 35, and LS 5 were homofermentative gram-positive tetrad cocci that formed l-(+)- andd-(−)-lactic acid. Epiphytic lactic acid bacteria succession during the pre-ensiling and ensiling periods of alfalfa and maize. DNA base composition was determined by the method of Tamaoka and Komagata (29) with high-performance liquid chromatography following enzymatic digestion of DNA to deoxyribonucleosides.