in the direction of polyolefins and thermoplastic polyesters. The aim of these studies was to improve our knowledge about PBDEs so that governments were in a better position to consider appropriate management actions. Bromine in particular is used because as it is heated the compound releases active bromine atoms into the gas phase, before the material reaches its ignition temperature. On 5 July 2013 ECHA withdrew Deca-BDE from its list of priority substances for Authorisation under REACH, therefore closing the public consultation. Brominated Flame Retardants. Solid materials are decomposed by heat and release flammable gasses. [7] Some PBDEs are lipophilic and bioaccumulative. Laboratory mice and rats have also shown liver function disturbances and damage to developing nervous systems as a result of exposure to PBDEs. Key findings. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) belong to a large class of compounds known as organohalogens. There are systems that combine multiple methods for achieving the ultimate in flame retardance. In the commercial market, more than 75 different BFRs are recognized. Content of brominated flame retardants in different polymers:[5], 390,000 tons of brominated flame retardants were sold in 2011. Recently, PBDEs have attracted increased international attention because of their potential to impact upon the environment and human health. [2], Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD or HBCDD) is a ring consisting of twelve carbon atoms with six bromine atoms tied to the ring. May 2011 EFSA considers eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) of primary interest. Aluminum and magnesium hydroxides are two compounds that interfere with the burning process through the release of inter gases (like water vapor). The mechanisms by which flame retardants act are complex, and can be quite specific to the nature of the material they are protecting. October 2010 EFSA experts conclude that the risk to the European population from exposure to Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) through food is of no concern. By disrupting the phase in which flammable gas is released the system is cooled and the supply of flammable gas is reduced or suppressed. Therefore a risk assessment on TBBPA derivatives was not possible. This represents 19.7% of the flame retardants market.[6]. A tool used in risk assessment to explore safety concerns arising from the presence of a potentially toxic substance in food or animal feed. The widespread use of plastic-based consumer articles since the mid-twentieth century was accompanied by a rise in fire-safety concerns due to said polymers being inherently flammable (Junod, 1976). Due to the lack of data and limited information on occurrence, exposure and toxicity for all these BFRs, a risk characterisation was not possible. But in the 1970s, brominated and chlorinated flame retardants were identified as carcinogenic and mutagenic (causing mutations) in DNA. Around half of all WEEE plastics generated in Europe do not … There are five main classes of BFRs, listed here with their common uses: These classes have been marketed as technical mixtures under different commercial brands. Of the BFRs still on the market, brominated bisphenols, diphenyl ethers and cyclododecanes are three major classes which represent the highest production volumes. There are three methods for flame retardance: vapor phase inhibition, solid phase char formation, and quench and cool systems. Some brominated flame retardants were identified as persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic to both humans and the environment and were suspected of causing neurobehavioral effects and endocrine disruption. Bromine Flame Retardants (BFRs) are the most prolific flame retardant used for their vapor phase inhibition properties. We regularly assist companies with identification quantitation of flame retardants. Flame retardants are chemical compounds added to plastics in order to prevent, delay, or slow down combustion, reduce smoke formation, and/or prevent the material from melt collapse (anti dripping). infants and children, people following specific diets, etc.) In the presence of fire, the hydrated minerals release water molecules that cool the polymer and interrupt the combustion process. These atoms quench the chemical reaction occurring within the flame and either extinguish the fire or … Michael J. Dagani, Henry J. Barda, Theodore J. Benya, David C. Sanders "Bromine Compounds" Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. In more simple terms, the release of water is chemically induced and the system is then cooled such that reactive gasses are not released and therefore cannot burn.