§ 321(s)). Available from: https://www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/geplants/ucm461805.htm. Cohen SN, Chang ACY, Boyer H, and Helling RB. In other words, the intent of APHIS is that plants, which have been engineered to produce pharmaceuticals, will remain directly subject to its regulation. On April 14, 2003, the project reached completion, and the genetic engineering field grew quickly. Uncovering the human genome was a tremendous step forward for science, but the discovery created a series of new concerns. Navarro MJ (Ed). Growing biotech crops can also help lower the cost of production, … (1995). 2016. Under APHIS regulations, most genetically engineered plants are considered "regulated articles." The length of time required to obtain the information to support a petition varies, but typically represents two to three years of field test results (and, perhaps, five to ten generations of plants). The scientific support for biotechnology and genetic engineering is substantial. Consumer info about food from genetically engineered plants. The interagency assessment was also originally intended to develop conclusions and recommendations regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the current system, but the various agencies involved were unable to reach agreement on these issues within the applicable time frame. With respect to plants, which have been genetically engineered to produce their own pesticides, the EPA developed a policy statement and proposed regulations in 1994 to regulate "plant-pesticides" (59 Fed. Biotechnology and Foods. Division on Earth and Life Studies. Issues discussed include the organization and financing of anti-biotechnology groups, the prospects for transgenic crops with enhanced nutritional or pharmaceutical attributes, and the role of the media in the debate. The most economically significant of these plant-pesticides are "Bt crops" (i.e., plants which have been genetically engineered to produce naturally occurring toxins derived from the bacterial species Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)). The United States was in the lead in percentage of biotech crops planted in 2016, at 39% of the global total, followed by Brazil at 27%, Argentina (13%), Canada (6%), India (6%), Paraguay (2%), Pakistan (2%), China (2%), South Africa (1%), and Uruguay (1%) (ISAAA 2016). In regard to animal health, they reported that the large number of experimental studies and long-term data on livestock health before and after the introduction of genetically engineered crops showed that there were no adverse effects for animals consuming food from genetically engineered crops. Millions of people in Southeast Asia and Africa do not get enough of this vital nutrient; so, this genetically engineered rice has become the symbol of an idea—that genetically engineered crops can directly improve the lives of many undernourished poor. However, the information submitted would be publicly available, although there would be opportunities for submitters to request that certain information (or even the fact of the consultation itself) be designated as confidential business information. Food Technology 54(8): Chicago, Ill.: Institute of Food Technologists. They concluded that no differences were found that implicate a higher risk to human health from these genetically engineered foods than those from the non-genetically engineered counterparts. Has genetic engineering led to monoculture? Voices and Views: Why Biotech? Other products include eggplant, oilseed rape, and sugar beets. Available on the World Wide Web: http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/consulpr.html. A person cannot ship a bio-engineered plant freely in interstate commerce until it has been "deregulated" by APHIS. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (National Academies)—a private, nonprofit group of institutions that provides independent expert analysis and advice on some of the most pressing challenges facing the nation and the world—has conducted reviews and evaluations on this topic for several decades, and produced two recent analyses (NASEM 2016; 2017a,b).