In explaining the functions of the controls, the instructor should emphasize that the controls never change in the results produced in relation to the pilot. The airspeed used for this descent condition is recommended by the airplane manufacturer and normally is no greater than 1.3 VSO. Failure to maintain constant bank angle during gliding turns. All controlled flight consists of either one, or a combination or more than one, of these basic maneuvers. The lift of the outside wing causes the bank to steepen and opposite aileron is necessary to keep the bank constant. A slight increase in the steepness of climb or a slight decrease in power will produce a descent. [Figure 3-8] In proper coordinated flight, there is no skidding or slipping. The objective of straight-and-level flight is to detect small deviations from laterally level flight as soon as they occur, necessitating only small corrections. The ability to sense a flight condition, without relying on cockpit instrumentation, is often called "feel of the airplane," but senses in addition to "feel" are involved. the airplane's nose moves (yaws) to the right in For example, assuming a 500-foot per minute rate of descent, the altitude must be led by 100 - 150 feet to level off at an airspeed higher than the glide speed. Brodak Manufacturing & Distributing Company, Inc. 100 Park Avenue Carmichaels, PA 15320 Voice. The pilot should always be considered the center of movement of the airplane, or the reference point from which the movements of the airplane are judged and described. Attempting to execute the turn solely by instrument reference. A stall in this situation will almost certainly result in a spin. Both heels should support the weight of the feet on the cockpit floor with the ball of each foot touching the individual rudder pedals. The flight instructor should demonstrate a normal glide, and direct the student pilot to memorize the airplane’s angle and speed by visually checking the airplane’s attitude with reference to the horizon, and noting the pitch of the sound made by the air passing over the structure, the pressure on the controls, and the feel of the airplane. Continuous checks and immediate corrections will allow little chance for the airplane to deviate from the desired heading, altitude, and flightpath. As power is increased, the airplane’s nose will rise due to increased download on the stabilizer. The amount of force the airflow exerts on a control surface is governed by the airspeed and the degree that the surface is moved out of its neutral or streamlined position. Their functions are as follows. To return to straight-and-level flight from a climb, it is necessary to initiate the level-off at approximately 10 percent of the rate of climb. When the rudder pedal must be moved significantly, heavy pressure changes should be made by applying the pressure with the ball of the foot while the heels slide along the cockpit floor. Air shows, however, are more focused on crowd-pleasing maneuvers designed to dazzle the onlookers in a dramatic or even comedic presentation. The desired airspeed, pitch attitude, and power combination should be preselected and kept constant. This tendency should be avoided as it prevents the Whereas, in a normal glide, the flightpath may be sighted to the spot on the ground on which the airplane will land. The airplane’s attitude is confirmed by referring to flight instruments, and its performance checked. The primary rule of attitude flying is: ATTITUDE + POWER = PERFORMANCE. conscious effort. The flight instructor must impart a good knowledge of these basic elements to the student, and must combine them and plan their practice so that perfect performance of each is instinctive without conscious effort. To avoid this the pilot must learn to establish and hold the airplane in the desired attitude using the primary flight controls. This cannot be done in any abnormal glide. An accomplished pilot who has excellent "feel" for the airplane will be able to detect even the minutest change. As the pitch attitude increases and the airspeed decreases, progressively more right rudder must be applied to compensate for propeller effects and to hold a constant heading. The best rate of climb made at full allowable power is a maximum climb. a lack of training, practice, or understanding of the Consequently, the pilot must be able to properly determine the control application required to place the airplane in any attitude or flight condition that is desired. Centripetal accelerations force the pilot down into the seat or raise the pilot against the seat belt. If the nose starts to move before the bank starts, rudder is being applied too soon. Figure 3-2. [Figure 3-11] Since on most light airplanes the engine cowling is fairly flat, its horizontal angle to the horizon will give some indication of the approximate degree of bank. If the body is properly relaxed, it will act as a pendulum and may be swayed by any force acting on it. Another type of "feel" comes to the pilot through the airframe. upon which all flying tasks are based: straight and level The student should learn to associate the apparent movement of the references with the forces which produce it. ability to perform any assigned maneuver will only be All the factors that affect the airplane during level (constant altitude) turns will affect it during climbing turns or any other training maneuver. With the wings approximately level, it is possible to maintain straight flight by simply exerting the necessary forces on the rudder in the desired direction. The best speed for the glide is one at which the airplane will travel the greatest forward distance for a given loss of altitude in still air. At the top of the loop, however, the pilot enjoys a few seconds of weightlessness as the front part of the airplane tips forward and airspeed begins to rebuild. After a good comprehension of the normal glide is attained, the student pilot should be instructed in the differences in the results of normal and "abnormal" glides. Improper coordination resulting in a slip which counteracts the effect of the climb, resulting in little or no altitude gain. To counteract this adverse yawing moment, rudder pressure must be applied simultaneously with aileron in the desired direction of turn. This means the use of outside references and flight instruments to establish and maintain desired flight … The elevator moves the nose of the airplane up or down in relation to the pilot, and perpendicular to the wings. perfect performance of each is instinctive without The throttle provides thrust which may be used for airspeed to tighten the turn. of it. When using the rudder pedals, pressure should be applied smoothly and evenly by pressing with the ball of one foot. In practicing turns, the action of the airplane’s nose will show any error in coordination of the controls. Aerobatic competitions usually involve compulsory figures, which are closely governed and restricted by a specific set or rules. Conversely, with a headwind the airplane will not glide as far because of the slower groundspeed. pilot. During climbing turns, as in any turn, the loss of vertical lift and induced drag due to increased angle of attack becomes greater as the angle of bank is increased, so shallow turns should be used to maintain an efficient rate of climb. knowledge of these basic elements to the student, and As a result, pressure may also be relaxed on the rudder pedals, and the rudder allowed to streamline itself with the direction of the slipstream.